PENUMBRAL LUNAR ECLIPSE

January 10, 2020

A penumbral eclipse of the Moon will occur on Friday, January 10, 2020 UT, lasting from 17:07–21:12 UT. It will be the first of four penumbral lunar eclipses in 2020. At maximum eclipse, 90% of the Moon’s disc will be partially shaded by the Earth, which will cause a slight shadow gradient across its disc; this subtle effect may be visible to careful observers. No part of the Moon will be in complete shadow.

What is a Penumbral Lunar Eclipse?

A penumbral lunar eclipse takes place when the Moon moves through the faint, outer part of Earth’s shadow. This type of eclipse is often mistaken for a normal Full Moon. The Moon shines because its surface reflects the Sun’s rays. A lunar eclipse happens when the Earth comes between the Sun and the Moon and blocks some or all of the Sun’s light from reaching the Moon.

Imperfect Alignment

A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are imperfectly aligned. When this happens, the Earth blocks some of the Sun’s light from directly reaching the Moon’s surface and covers all or part of the Moon with the outer part of its shadow, also known as the penumbra. Since the penumbra is much fainter than the dark core of the Earth’s shadow, the umbra, a penumbral eclipse of the Moon is often difficult to tell apart from a normal Full Moon.

Two Conditions

Two celestial events must happen at the same time for a penumbral lunar eclipse to occur:

  • The Moon must be in the Full Moon phase.
  • The Sun, Earth, and Moon must be nearly aligned, but not as closely aligned as during a partial eclipse.

Not Every Full Moon Night

The reason we do not see a lunar eclipse every Full Moon night has to do with the inclination of the Moon’s orbital path. The plane of the Moon’s orbit around the Earth is inclined at an angle of 5° to the Earth’s orbital plane around the Sun, the ecliptic. The points where the two orbital planes meet are called lunar nodes. Lunar eclipses can only take place when a Full Moon occurs near a node.

WHEN AND WHERE TO SEE

The eclipse will last 4 hours and 5 minutes overall, and will be visible from Africa, Europe, Asia, Alaska, and Australia.

The timings of the eclipse are as follows. You will be able to see the eclipse if the Moon is up as seen from your location; but note that this penumbral eclipse will be very difficult to see in practice:

 

Event UTC Time Time in New Delhi* Visible in New Delhi
Penumbral Eclipse begins 10 Jan, 17:07:44 10 Jan, 22:37:44 Yes
Maximum Eclipse 10 Jan, 19:10:02 11 Jan, 00:40:02 Yes
Penumbral Eclipse ends 10 Jan, 21:12:19 11 Jan, 02:42:19 Yes

During this eclipse the Moon will be just 3 days before perigee, making it relatively large. At maximum eclipse it will be 0.545° in apparent diameter, which is 2.6% larger than average.

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN

There are no precautions you need to take when observing a lunar eclipse, since the moon is never bright enough to hurt our eyes like the sun is. A blood moon is one of the few opportunities we have to see both the moon and the stars in the sky at the same time, since the moon is usually too bright.

Annular Solar Eclipse

 December 26, 2019

An Annular solar eclipse will be visible from Saudi Arabia, Oman, southern India, and parts of Indonesia. In most of Asia, parts of North/East Africa, and North/West Australia, people can see a partial eclipse.

What is a Solar Eclipse?

A solar eclipse takes place when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly blocking the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon’s apparent diameter is larger than the Sun’s, blocking all direct sunlight, turning the day into darkness.

   

When the Eclipse Happens Worldwide — Timeline

The eclipse starts at one location and ends at another. The times below are actual times (in UTC) when the eclipse occurs.

Event UTC Time Time in Southern India*
First location to see the partial eclipse begin 26 Dec, 02:29:53 26 Dec, 07:59:53
First location to see the full eclipse begin 26 Dec, 03:34:33 26 Dec, 09:04:33
Maximum Eclipse 26 Dec, 05:17:46 26 Dec, 10:47:46
Last location to see the full eclipse end 26 Dec, 07:00:55 26 Dec, 12:30:55
Last location to see the partial eclipse end 26 Dec, 08:05:40 26 Dec, 13:35:40

 

Where will it be visible?

The eclipse will begin in Saudi Arabia about 220 kilometers northeast of Riyadh at 03:43 UT1 and will end in Guam at 06:59.4 UT1. It will reach India near Kannur, Kerala at 03:56 UT1 (9.26 am, IST). The shadow will reach the southeast coast of India at 04:04 UT1 (9.34 am, IST). Traveling through northern Sri Lanka, it will head into the Bay of Bengal.

Precautions to be taken while observing Solar Eclipse!

Viewing the Sun with our naked eyes for more than a few seconds could damage our eyes. And henceforth, viewing the Sun during Solar Eclipse with naked eyes could even lead to permanent eye damage. We should take necessary precautions to ensure our safety and the safety of others.

You don’t always need a telescope to view the Sun, all you need is an appropriate filter, and a piece of No. 14 Arcwelder’s glass is a very popular choice. Welder’s filters of shades 12 through 14 are the safest solar filters.

We can also use a simple projection system and project the image formed at the eyepiece of a telescope on a white sheet and observe it safely or make a pin hole/ ball projector.

Solar view glasses are special eyewear, which can be used for direct viewing of the Sun. Standard sunglasses are not able to filter out eye damaging radiations coming from the Sun. These solar view glasses filter visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. The eye’s retina does not have pain receptors, and thus damage could occur without one’s awareness.

An Eclipse Never Comes Alone!

A solar eclipse will always take place about two weeks before or after a lunar eclipse and vice-versa. Mostly, there occurs two eclipses in a row and at other times; there are three that can occur during the same eclipse season. A Penumbral Lunar Eclipse will follow this solar eclipse on January 10, 2020.

Stay tuned for more updates!

Partial Lunar Eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse will take place on 16 and 17 July 2019. The Moon will be about half-covered by the Earth’s umbral shadow at maximum eclipse. The magnitude of the eclipse will be 0.653.The penumbral magnitude of the eclipse will be 1.704.The total duration of the eclipse is expected to be 5 hours, 34 minutes. The duration of the partial eclipse is expected to be 2 hours, 58 minutes.

When and Where to see

This partial lunar eclipse, is the last lunar eclipse of 2019 and is visible from Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, South/East North America, South America, Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Antarctica

 

Partial Lunar Eclipse visible in Lucknow

Source:timeanddate.com

                         Not Occur Every Full Moon Night

   Source: timeanddate.com

Partial lunar eclipses do not happen every full Moon night because of the inclination of the Moon’s orbital plane. The Moon’s orbital path around the Earth is inclined at an angle of 5° to the Earth’s orbital plane (ecliptic) around the Sun. The points where the two orbital planes meet are called lunar nodes.

Lunar eclipses occur when the Moon is near a node at full Moon and Solar eclipse take place when it is near a node at New Moon.

Total Solar Eclipse

The first total solar eclipse anywhere in the world after the Great American Eclipse of August 21, 2017 comes to Chile and Argentina near sunset on July 2, 2019.

The total solar eclipse will be visible from the southern Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand to the Coquimbo Region in Chile and Argentina , with the maximum of 4 minutes 32 seconds visible from the Pacific Ocean.

 

What is a Solar Eclipse?

A solar eclipse takes place when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly blocking the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon’s apparent diameter is larger than the Sun’s, blocking all direct sunlight, turning the day into darkness.

When the Eclipse Happens Worldwide — Timeline

The eclipse starts at one location and ends at another. The times below are actual times (in UTC) when the eclipse occurs.

Event UTC Time Time in Lucknow*
First location to see the partial eclipse begin 2 Jul, 16:55:13 2 Jul, 22:25:13
First location to see the full eclipse begin 2 Jul, 18:01:08 2 Jul, 23:31:08
Maximum Eclipse 2 Jul, 19:22:57 3 Jul, 00:52:57
Last location to see the full eclipse end 2 Jul, 20:44:46 3 Jul, 02:14:46
Last location to see the partial eclipse end 2 Jul, 21:50:34 3 Jul, 03:20:34

 

Where will it be visible?

Chile:Totality will be visible in a large portion of Coquimbo Region and small parts of Atacama Region. Cities in the path include La Serena, Coquimbo, La Higuera and Vicuña.

Argentina:Totality will be visible in the provinces of San Juan, La Rioja, San Luis, Córdoba, Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires. Cities in the path include San Juan, and Río Cuarto.

Pitcairn Islands:Totality will be visible from Oeno Island.

French Polynesia:There will be partial visibility in Tahiti and Bora Bora.

 

Precautions to be taken while observing Solar Eclipse!

Viewing the Sun with our naked eyes for more than a few seconds could damage our eyes. And henceforth, viewing the Sun during Solar Eclipse with naked eyes could even lead to permanent eye damage. We should take necessary precautions to ensure our safety and the safety of others.

You don’t always need a telescope to view the Sun, all you need is an appropriate filter, and a piece of No. 14 arcwelder’s glass is a very popular choice. Welder’s filters of shades 12 through 14 are the safest solar filters.

We can also use a simple projection system and project the image formed at the eyepiece of a telescope on a white sheet and observe it safely or make a pin hole/ ball projector.

 

Solar view glasses are special eyewear, which can be used for direct viewing of the Sun. Standard sunglasses are not able to filter out eye damaging radiations coming from the Sun. These solar view glasses filter visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. The eye’s retina does not have pain receptors, and thus damage could occur without one’s awareness.

An Eclipse Never Comes Alone!

A solar eclipse will always take place about two weeks before or after a lunar eclipse. Mostly, there occurs two eclipses in a row and at other times; there are three that can occur during the same eclipse season!

Longest Total Lunar Eclipse of the Century: Blood Moon – July 27-28, 2018

The longest total lunar eclipse of the 21st century takes place this Friday, July 27. A similar one will next be seen in 2123.

The total phase of the “blood moon” eclipse of July 27 will last 1 hour and 43 minutes, during which Earth’s natural satellite will turn a spectacular red or ruddy-brown color. From start to finish, the entire celestial event will last nearly 4 hours.

July’s total lunar eclipse occurs on the same day the planet Mars reaches its opposition, when it will shine at its best in the night sky. This month, Mars will be at its closest (57.6 mi km)to Earth since 2003. After opposition, when Mars will be brightest, it will reach that closest point on July 31. NASA says this won’t happen again until 2287.

 

What is a Lunar Eclipse and how do we observe it?

Unlike with solar eclipses, you need no special equipment to observe lunar eclipses. These latter events, which occur when the moon passes into Earth’s shadow, are safe to view directly with the naked eye, telescopes or binoculars.

The moon turns deep red or reddish brown during eclipses, instead of going completely dark. That’s because some of the sunlight going through Earth’s atmosphere is bent around the edge of our planet and falls onto the moon’s surface. Earth’s air also scatters more shorter-wavelength light (in colors such as green or blue); what’s left is the longer-wavelength, redder end of the spectrum.

Where and when will it be visible?

The timing if this total lunar eclipse means it won’t be visible from North America, though much of the Eastern Hemisphere of Earth will see part or all of the eclipse. The entire eclipse will be visible from Africa, the Middle East and countries in central Asia. The eclipse will be visible from eastern South America as it is ending, and from Australia as it is beginning.

The time of greatest eclipse will be 4:21 p.m. EDT (2021 GMT) on July 27, according to EarthSky.org. The total eclipse will last from 3:30 p.m. to 5:13 p.m. EDT (1930 to 2113 GMT). There will also be some time before and after when the moon is in the lighter part of Earth’s shadow, which is called the penumbra. Including that penumbral time, the eclipse will last for 3 hours and 55 minutes.

 

When will it be visible from India?

The first part or phase of lunar eclipse will see the moon fall under the earth’s shadow. This phase is known as the penumbral eclipse (initial stage). The event is said to begin from 11:44 pm IST on July 27. The first phase of the lunar eclipse is expected to set in from 11:54 pm. The total lunar eclipse is estimated to set in from 1:00 am IST on July 28. From 1:15am to 2:43am, the moon will be in the middle of the Earth’s shadow and will appear reddish in colour. It is known that the total lunar eclipse or Chandra Grahn effects will be visible in cities including Delhi, Pune, Bengaluru and Mumbai among others.

For the second phase, as the moon continues on its orbit, there will be another partial lunar eclipse, which will be visible from around 2:43 am IST. The eclipse will continue till 4:58am though the effect will not look as great.

Why is it the longest of the century?

What controls the duration of the lunar eclipse is the position of the moon as it passes through the Earth’s shadow. The darkest part of Earth’s shadow is called the umbra. You can picture the umbra as a cone extending from Earth in the opposite direction to the sun.

The moon can either graze through the cone, or go right through the middle. That [the middle] gets a longer-duration eclipse. This time, the moon is passing closer to the center of that cone, and it’s therefore a little bit longer than the eclipse we had back in January, 2018.

Additionally, the moon will be at a farther point from Earth along its orbit(apogee), EarthSky pointed out. That means the moon will appear slightly smaller in the sky and will take a little bit longer to go through Earth’s shadow.

Total lunar eclipse July 27 2018. See story SCIENCE Eclipse. Infographic from PA Graphics

So what are you waiting for? Pack your bags, nature has got you the best weekend plan! Go and enjoy this beautiful phenomenon with your loved ones. TGIF!